List of universities in Canada

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Universities in Canada's provinces and territories

Universities in Canada are established and operate under provincial and territorial government charters, except in one case directed by First Nations bands[note 1] and in another by federal legislation.[note 2] Most public universities in the country are members of Universities Canada (formerly the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC)). The title "university" is protected under federal regulation.[1]


Degree course[edit]

As of 2023, there are over 100 universities in Canada, offering education in English and French.[2] Most French-speaking universities are located in Quebec, though several institutions outside the province are either francophone or bilingual. 1.8 million students are enrolled in university.[3] Programs are offered to graduating high school students through choice; however, students must maintain specific entering averages, which generally range from 65 to 85%, depending on criteria set by the chosen university. On campus residences are available at 95% of universities in Canada.[4] Most include a meal plan and general utilities. Residence is optional at all post-secondary campuses.[citation needed]

Degree programs generally last three to four years, though some programs may take longer to complete due to cooperative education (Co-op) programs or joint programs with colleges which are touted for offering practical experience. Tuition is based on program material and content, which vary in price. For many programs, more general courses will be taken in first year while "program specific courses" begin in year two. Some universities such as University of Toronto require admission separate from initial admission from high school into specific programs based on internal standards achieved in first year (i.e. a set grade point average).[citation needed] Higher education institutions in Canada are prevented from becoming diploma mills by provincial/territorial legislation and regulation.[citation needed]

Universities by province and territory[edit]


The University of Alberta has the largest number of graduate students enrolled in Alberta.

Post-secondary education in Alberta is regulated by the Ministry of Advanced Education.[5] There are eight public universities in Alberta, ten public colleges, three polytechnical institutes (which grant degrees), and seven private colleges (all of which grant degrees). Most private universities refer to themselves as "university colleges", and they grant equivalent degrees.[5] One university, University nuhelotʼįne thaiyotsʼį nistameyimâkanak Blue Quills, is governed not under provincial legislation, but controlled directly by a consortium of seven First Nations band governments.

Edmonton, the province's capital city, is home to the University of Alberta, the province's oldest and largest university; MacEwan University; The King's University; and Concordia University of Edmonton (not to be confused with Concordia University of Montreal). The French-language Campus Saint-Jean is part of the University of Alberta, offering programmes to francophone and francophile students.

There are five universities in Calgary: the University of Calgary, Ambrose University, Mount Royal University, St. Mary's University and the Alberta University of the Arts.

The University of Lethbridge is based out of Lethbridge but also has a campus in Calgary.

Athabasca University, a distance learning university, has been based out of Athabasca since 1970.

Established in 1907 in Leduc, the independent publicly funded Burman University in Lacombe is the oldest university in Alberta. Formerly a university college, the Alberta Government granted the institution permission to change its status from "university college" to "university" in 2014.[6]

In 2009, a bill was passed by the Alberta legislature which allowed the two public colleges that offered degrees (MacEwan College in Edmonton and Mount Royal College in Calgary) to change their status to universities.[7] Mount Royal College was renamed Mount Royal University on September 3, 2009[8] and Grant MacEwan College became Grant MacEwan University on September 24, 2009 (renamed MacEwan University in September 2013).[9]

In 2015 The King's University College (originally The King's College) was renamed The King's University,[10] and Concordia University College of Alberta (originally Concordia College) was renamed Concordia University of Edmonton.

British Columbia[edit]

The University of British Columbia has the largest number of students enrolled in western Canada.

Post-secondary education in BC is regulated by the Ministry of Post-Secondary Education and Future Skills. There are eleven public universities and five private universities in British Columbia. University enrolment in British Columbia ranges from Quest University Canada with 700 students[11] to the University of British Columbia with 45,484 students.

Eight universities are in the Metro Vancouver region, which is the most populated region of British Columbia: Capilano University, Emily Carr University of Art and Design, University of the Fraser Valley, Kwantlen Polytechnic University, Trinity Western University, Simon Fraser University (main campus in Burnaby, with other campuses in Surrey and downtown Vancouver), University Canada West and the University of British Columbia (with the exception of UBC Okanagan, the major UBC campus located in the Okanagan Valley).

Three universities are on Vancouver Island including Vancouver Island University, Royal Roads University and the University of Victoria. The University of Northern British Columbia houses a main campus in Prince George, with regional campuses in Quesnel, Terrace and Fort St. John.

Three public universities, Capilano University, University of the Fraser Valley and Kwantlen Polytechnic University, along with the private Quest University Canada (suspending academic programming as of April 2023[12]) are primarily undergraduate institutions.

The first university established in the province was the University of British Columbia, founded in 1908.[13] The University of Victoria is the oldest post-secondary institution in British Columbia having been established in 1903 as Victoria College. However, the institution not designated as a university under the provincial University Act until 1963.

Online and distance education[edit]

The biggest provider of online and distance education in BC is Thompson Rivers University, Open Learning. With over 400 individual courses and more than 57 programs available for completion by distance and online learning, students can take a variety of programs such as adult secondary school completion; certificates and diplomas, including advanced and post-baccalaureate; associate degrees; and bachelor's degrees. Considering distance students, Thompson Rivers University's enrolment is 22,036 (8964 of which is distance).


Established in 1818, Université de Saint-Boniface is the oldest post-secondary institute in Manitoba and the only French language university in western Canada.

There are five public universities and one private university in Manitoba, which are under the responsibility of the Ministry of Advanced Education and Literacy.[14] Three of the public universities—the University of Manitoba, which is the oldest university in western Canada, the University of Winnipeg, and Université de Saint-Boniface—are in Winnipeg, the capital and largest city in the province. Université de Saint-Boniface, established in 1818, is the oldest post-secondary institute in the province and is the only French-language university in western Canada. Brandon University is located in the western Manitoba city of Brandon. Canadian Mennonite University is a private Anabaptist university in Winnipeg.

The province also has three university colleges: Booth University College, formed in 1982 in Winnipeg, Providence University College in Otterburne, Manitoba, and the University College of the North, which serves the communities of The Pas and Thompson. Smaller satellite campuses serve 12 other smaller centres, 9 of which are on First Nations land.

University enrolment in Manitoba ranges from Booth University College with several hundred students to the University of Manitoba with 26,800 students.

New Brunswick[edit]

The University of New Brunswick has the largest student enrolment in the province.

There are eight chartered universities in New Brunswick; four public universities,[15] governed by the Ministry of Post-Secondary Education, Training and Labour,[16] and four private institutions including an online university, Yorkville University. New Brunswick holds the distinctions of having the first English-language university in Canada and the first public university in North America, (the University of New Brunswick);[17] and also the first university in the British Empire to award a bachelor's degree to a woman, (Mount Allison University) in 1875.[18] St. Thomas University and University of New Brunswick have campuses in the province's capital of Fredericton and UNB also maintains a campus in Saint John. Established in 1785, the University of New Brunswick is the oldest public in the province, and the Université de Moncton is the newest, formed in 1963, though dating back to 1864 through one of its three predecessor institutions. Public university enrolment ranges from Mount Allison University with 2,486 students to the University of New Brunswick with 10,587 students. Of the three private universities, Crandall University has an enrolment 800.[19] Another private university, St. Stephen's University is located in St. Stephen, NB. Kingswood University is an evangelical Christian University associated with the Wesleyan Church, located in Sussex, New Brunswick, Canada.

Newfoundland and Labrador[edit]

Memorial University of Newfoundland is one of the largest universities in Atlantic Canada.

The Degree Granting Act of Newfoundland and Labrador regulates degree-granting universities in the province.[20] The only university in Newfoundland and Labrador,[15] Memorial University of Newfoundland, has campuses in three cities, in St. John's, the capital of Newfoundland and Labrador, on the west coast of the province, in Corner Brook, and in Harlow, U.K. With 19, 429 enrolled students, it is the second largest university in Atlantic Canada.[21]

Nova Scotia[edit]

The University of King's College is the oldest university in Nova Scotia.

There are 10 universities in Nova Scotia.[22] Six of these – Atlantic School of Theology, Dalhousie University, Mount Saint Vincent University, the NSCAD University, Saint Mary's University, and the University of King's College – are located in Halifax, Nova Scotia, the provincial capital and largest city in Atlantic Canada. The oldest university in the province is the University of King's College, established in 1789, while the newest is Cape Breton University, established in 1974. University student enrolment in Nova Scotia ranges from 150 students at Atlantic School of Theology to more than 18,000 at Dalhousie University.

Several universities in Nova Scotia have religious connections. The University of King's College, founded in Windsor, was the first college to obtain university powers in British North America, at a time when Upper Canada had no government of its own. It has always remained under the control of the Church of England. Dalhousie University, originally known as Dalhousie College, was established in Halifax in 1818 with the help of the Presbyterian Church, and Acadia University was founded by Baptists. Catholics formed Saint Mary's University, Mount Saint Vincent University, and Saint Francis Xavier University.[23]

Université Sainte-Anne, the tenth university, is located in Pointe-de-l'Église and instructs its academic courses in French.


The University of Toronto has the largest student population of any university in Canada.

There are 24 publicly funded universities in the Canadian province of Ontario that are post-secondary education institutions with degree-granting authority.[24] Each of these institutions were either established through an Act of the Legislative Assembly or through a royal charter.[25] With the exception of Royal Military College of Canada, students apply to public universities in Ontario through the Ontario Universities' Application Centre.

Ontario also has 24 publicly funded colleges, most referred to as Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology and three as Institutes of Technology and Advanced Learning, all of which are commonly referred to as colleges.[26] All of the colleges offered 901 bachelor's degree programmes, as of 2023–24.[27]

The University of Toronto was established in 1827, making it the oldest university in Ontario. The newest university in Ontario is the Université de l'Ontario français, incorporated by legislation in 2018 but accepting its first cohort of full-time students in 2021. The next newest, Algoma University, was established in 2008 after gaining independence from Laurentian University. The largest university in terms of enrolment is the University of Toronto, which has 84,000 students across campuses in three locations.[28] York University in Toronto has over 50,000 students, the second largest university in terms of enrolment.[29] The U15 Group of Canadian Research Universities is headquartered in Ottawa.

Prince Edward Island[edit]

The University of Prince Edward Island in 2006

There is one university in Prince Edward Island that is authorized to grant degrees.[15] Higher education in the province falls under the jurisdiction of the Higher Education and Corporate Services Branch within the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development.[30] The only university in the province, the University of Prince Edward Island, is in the province's capital of Charlottetown. The institution resulted from an amalgamation of Prince of Wales College, a former university college founded in 1834, and Saint Dunstan's University, founded in 1855.[31] UPEI hosts the Atlantic Veterinary College, funded by the four Atlantic provincial governments.[32]


Established in 1663, Université Laval is the oldest post-secondary institution in Canada.
McGill University is the oldest anglophone university in the province of Quebec.

There are 19 universities in the largely French-speaking province of Quebec, 10 of which form the Université du Québec network.

In Québec, universities are independent from government and autonomous in managing their affairs. By means of legislation or constitutional charters, lawmakers have granted each university the freedom to define its own curriculum and develop its own teaching and research programs. The university has full responsibility for setting admission standards and enrolment requirements, awarding degrees and recruiting its personnel.

Of the nineteen universities, three are anglophone: Concordia University, McGill University and Bishop's University. One, the Royal Military College Saint-Jean, is bilingual (between French and English). The rest are francophone: five of them – École de technologie supérieure, Polytechnique Montréal, HEC Montréal, Université de Montréal and Université du Québec à Montréal – are located in Montreal, the most populated city in Quebec, and four of them – École nationale d'administration publique, Institut national de la recherche scientifique, TÉLUQ and Université Laval – are based in Quebec City, the province's capital. The Institut national de la recherche scientifique and École nationale d'administration publique do not offer undergraduate level programs, while TÉLUQ is a distance learning university.

The oldest university in the province is Université Laval, established in 1663 but became a university only in 1852. The most recent institutions are: Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue (1983), Concordia University (1974), École de technologie supérieure (1974), TÉLUQ (1972, merged with UQÀM in 2005, split in 2012). University enrolment in the province of Quebec ranges from the Institut national de la recherche scientifique with 480 students to the Université de Montréal with 55,540 students (but this figure actually includes HEC and Polytechnique, which are legally distinct universities).


The University of Saskatchewan holds the highest enrolment numbers out of any university in the province.

There are two universities in Saskatchewan with degree-granting authority.[15] The Government of Saskatchewan must establish statutes individually to degree-granting universities; these statutes outline the authority of each institution, their regulations, and bylaws.[33] The University of Regina is based Regina, the province's capital, and the University of Saskatchewan is in Saskatoon, the most populous city in Saskatchewan. The University of Saskatchewan is the oldest university in the province, founded in 1907. The University of Saskatchewan is also the largest university in Saskatchewan with 18,620 students, and the First Nations University of Canada (FNUC) is the smallest with 840 students. The First Nations University of Canada is another post-secondary institution that is federated with the University of Regina, and caters to the needs of First Nations students. It was originally called the Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations, and once formed, it entered into a federated agreement with the University of Regina to create the Saskatchewan Indian Federated College (SIFC). This Agreement allowed FNUC to become an independently administered university-college that served First Nations students.[34] The First Nations University of Canada is the only university in the province that does not offer graduate-level programs.


Panorama of Yukon University in 2007. Buildings in the foreground are residences built for the Canada Winter Games as an athlete's village.

Yukon University (formerly Yukon College) is a public university in the Canadian territory of Yukon. Although the institution also operates 12 campuses throughout the territory, its main campus is based in Whitehorse. Initially built as a Canadian college, Yukoners had proposed the Yukon college become a university in some form or other since 2004. In December, 2019, the Yukon Legislative Assembly passed a bill that would transform Yukon College into Yukon University. The university officially opened in May 2020, making Yukon University the only public university in northern Canada.

List of public universities[edit]

There are many public universities in Canada that are authorized to issue degrees. Degrees from Affiliated institutions and seminaries are typically awarded by the affiliate's parent institution.

Name Province City Language Year established Undergraduate students[35] Graduate students[35] Total full-time students[35]
Full-time Part-time Full-time Part-time
Alberta University of the Arts Alberta Calgary English 1926 0
Acadia University Nova Scotia Wolfville English 1838 3,610 360 180 330 3,790
Algoma University Ontario Sault Ste. Marie,
English 2008 3,700 360 0 0 3,700
Athabasca University Alberta Athabasca,
English 1970 0 35,520 0 5,110 0
Bishop's University Quebec Sherbrooke English 1843 2,400 300 240 40 2,640
Brandon University Manitoba Brandon English 1899 2,220 370 210 180 2,430
Brock University Ontario St. Catharines,
English 1964 15,600 2,300 1,500 220 17,100
Cape Breton University Nova Scotia Sydney English 1974 5,230 400 180 140 5,410
Capilano University British Columbia North Vancouver English 1968 0
Carleton University Ontario Ottawa English[note 3] 1942 19,600 6,600 3,700 660 23,300
Concordia University Quebec Montreal English 1974 21,100 9,760 7,240 650 28,340
Dalhousie University Nova Scotia Halifax,
English 1818 14,710 330 1,580 780 16,290
Emily Carr University of Art and Design British Columbia Vancouver English 1925 1,670 200 0 0 1,670
Kwantlen Polytechnic University British Columbia Richmond, Surrey, Langley, Cloverdale English 1981 11,170 1,400 150 10 11,320
Lakehead University Ontario Thunder Bay, Orillia English 1965 5,700 1,400 1,400 10 7,100
MacEwan University Alberta Edmonton English 1971 12,740 1,950 0 0 12,740
Mount Royal University Alberta Calgary English 1910 10,620 1,000 0 0 10,620
University of Alberta Alberta Edmonton, Camrose, Calgary Bilingual 1906 33,180 1,900 6,950 1,460 40,130
University of Calgary Alberta Calgary, Edmonton English 1966 27,050 1,280 6,990 1,010 34,040
University of Lethbridge Alberta Lethbridge, Edmonton, Calgary English 1967 6,900 630 580 160 7,480
Royal Roads University British Columbia Victoria English 1995 610 0 2,610 0 3,220
Simon Fraser University British Columbia Burnaby, Surrey, Vancouver English 1965 13,200 12,490 3,930 760 17,130
Thompson Rivers University British Columbia Kamloops English 1970 7,690 700 750 45 8,440
University of British Columbia British Columbia Vancouver,
English 1908 41,330 16,180 11,040 1,790 52,370
University of Victoria British Columbia Victoria English 1963 14,350 4,440 3,050 220 17,400
University of the Fraser Valley British Columbia Abbotsford,
English 1974 7,090 2,110 30 40 7,120
University of Northern British Columbia British Columbia Prince George English 1990 1,730 930 540 110 2,270
Vancouver Island University British Columbia Nanaimo,
Powell River
English 1969 5,270 1,080 500 300 5,770
University College of the North Manitoba The Pas,
English 1966 0
University of Manitoba Manitoba Winnipeg Bilingual 1877 22,700 3,960 3,140 570 25,840
Université de Saint-Boniface Manitoba Winnipeg French 1818 700 120 0 110 700
University of Winnipeg Manitoba Winnipeg English 1871 8,540 1,750 170 90 8,710
Mount Allison University New Brunswick Sackville English 1839 2,300 100 10 0 2,310
St. Thomas University New Brunswick Fredericton English 1910 1,580 130 20 0 1,600
University of New Brunswick New Brunswick Fredericton, Saint John English 1785 7,350 610 1,500 570 8,850
Université de Moncton New Brunswick Moncton,
French 1963 4,520 360 410 210 4,930
Memorial University of Newfoundland Newfoundland St. John's,
Corner Brook,
Harlow (United Kingdom)
English 1925 12,550 1,870 3,290 1,200 15,840
Mount Saint Vincent University Nova Scotia Halifax English 1873 2,300 520 240 820 2,540
Nova Scotia College of Art and Design University Nova Scotia Halifax English 1887 670 110 50 10 720
Saint Francis Xavier University Nova Scotia Antigonish English 1853 3,980 660 110 690 4,090
Saint Mary's University Nova Scotia Halifax English 1802 5,130 510 660 130 5,790
Université Sainte-Anne Nova Scotia Pointe-de-l'Église French 1890 520 70 10 30 530
University of King's College Nova Scotia Halifax English 1789 840 40 90 0 930
Laurentian University / Université Laurentienne Ontario Sudbury,
Bilingual 1960 0
McMaster University Ontario Hamilton English 1887 30,400 1,300 4,700 930 35,100
Nipissing University Ontario North Bay,
English 1992 3,600 1,400 170 0 3,770
Ontario College of Art and Design University Ontario Toronto English 1876 9,300 730 230 80 9,530
Queen's University at Kingston Ontario Kingston English 1841 23,600 3,600 5,600 1,000 29,200
Royal Military College of Canada / Collège militaire royal du Canada Ontario Kingston Bilingual 1876 1,150 710 400 400 1,550
Toronto Metropolitan University Ontario Toronto English 1948 30,600 14,300 2,700 270 33,300
Trent University Ontario Peterborough, Oshawa English 1963 10,200 1,600 670 170 10,870
Université de Hearst Ontario Hearst,
French 1953 0
Université de l'Ontario français Ontario Toronto French 2018 0
Université de Sudbury Ontario Sudbury French 1913 0
University of Guelph Ontario Guelph,
English 1964 24,400 3,600 2,900 280 27,300
Ontario Tech University Ontario Oshawa English 2002 9,300 730 750 270 10,050
University of Ottawa / Université d'Ottawa Ontario Ottawa Bilingual 1848 34,300 5,900 7,100 1,500 41,400
University of Toronto Ontario Toronto,
English[note 4] 1827 69,400 6,400 20,000 1,600 89,400
University of Waterloo Ontario Waterloo,
English 1957 34,700 1,300 4,800 1,400 39,500
University of Western Ontario Ontario London English 1878 0
University of Windsor Ontario Windsor English 1857 10,200 1,600 5,800 10 16,000
Wilfrid Laurier University Ontario Waterloo,
English 1911 16,700 3,600 1,100 1,100 17,800
York University Ontario Toronto English[note 5] 1959 41,000 5,700 4,600 1,500 45,600
University of Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island Charlottetown English 1969 4,650 340 550 0 5,200
École de technologie supérieure[note 6] Quebec Montreal French 1974 4,340 1,590 2,390 520 6,730
École nationale d'administration publique[note 6] Quebec Quebec City,
French 1969 810 1,190 810
Institut national de la recherche scientifique[note 6] Quebec Quebec City,
French 1969 580 50 580
McGill University Quebec Montreal, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue English 1821 24,140 2,810 7,910 1,700 32,050
Université de Montréal Quebec Montreal French 1878 23,890 7,860 11,310 2,740 35,200
Université de Sherbrooke Quebec Sherbrooke French 1954 11,650 2,170 5,410 6,080 17,060
Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue[note 6] Quebec Rouyn-Noranda, Mont-Laurier French 1970 1,030 3,350 350 520 1,380
Université du Québec en Outaouais[note 6] Quebec Gatineau,
French 1970 3,140 1,780 810 710 3,950
Université du Québec à Chicoutimi[note 6] Quebec Chicoutimi French 1969 3,540 1,080 1,340 430 4,880
Université du Québec à Montréal [note 6] Quebec Montreal French 1969 16,500 10,010 4,610 4,130 21,110
Université du Québec à Rimouski[note 6] Quebec Rimouski, Lévis French 1969 2,550 2,580 850 580 3,400
Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières[note 6] Quebec Trois-Rivières French 1969 7,270 3,940 2,030 1,500 9,300
Université TÉLUQ[note 6][37] Quebec Quebec City French 1972 1,638[38] 16,562 126[38] 1,674[38] 1,764[38]
Université Laval Quebec Quebec City French 1663 22,060 11,370 9,290 4,970 31,350
University of Regina Saskatchewan Regina, Saskatoon, Swift Current English[note 7] 1911 0
University of Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Saskatoon English 1907 17,260 1,560 3,040 530 20,300
Yukon University Yukon Whitehorse English 1983[note 8] 0

List of private universities[edit]

The following is a list of private universities that are authorized to issue degrees by a provincial authority. The following list does not include satellite campuses and branches in Canada for universities based in the United States. All of them are English language institutions.

Name City Province Est. Students Faith-based Ref.
Undergrad. Postgrad. Total
Ambrose University Calgary Alberta 1921 920 0 920 Yes [39]
Booth University College Winnipeg Manitoba 1982 250 0 250 Yes [40][needs update]
Burman University Lacombe Alberta 1907 Yes
Canadian Mennonite University Winnipeg Manitoba 1999 1,235 64 1,299 Yes [41]
Concordia University of Edmonton Edmonton Alberta 1921 2,808 290 3,098 No[note 9] [41]
Crandall University Moncton New Brunswick 1949 685 0 685 Yes [42][needs update]
Kingswood University Sussex New Brunswick 1945 300 0 300 Yes [43][needs update]
Pacific Coast University for Workplace Health Sciences Port Alberni British Columbia 2007 No
Providence University College and Theological Seminary Otterburne Manitoba 1925 Yes
Quest University Squamish British Columbia 2007 700 0 700 No [44][needs update]
Redeemer University College Hamilton Ontario 1982 787 0 787 Yes [41]
St. Mary's University, Calgary Calgary Alberta 1986 1,025 0 1,025 Yes [45]
St. Stephen's University St. Stephen New Brunswick 1975 100 0 100 No[note 10] [47][needs update]
The King's University Edmonton Alberta 1979 819 40 859 Yes [41]
Trinity Western University Langley British Columbia 1962 3,364 1,402 4,766 Yes [41]
Tyndale University Toronto Ontario 1894 850 0 850 Yes [48][needs update]
University Canada West Vancouver British Columbia 2005 350 0 350 No [49][needs update]
University of Fredericton Fredericton New Brunswick 2005 No
Yorkville University Fredericton, Toronto, Vancouver, Vaughan British Columbia, New Brunswick, Ontario 2003 No

See also[edit]


  1. ^ University nuhelotʼįne thaiyotsʼį nistameyimâkanak Blue Quills, in St. Paul Alberta
  2. ^ Royal Military College of Canada
  3. ^ Carleton University operates as an anglophone institution. However, an affiliated institution of Carleton, Dominican University College, operates as a bilingual institution.[36]
  4. ^ The University of Toronto operates as an anglophone institution. However, a graduate school of the university, the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, operates as a bilingual institution.[36]
  5. ^ York University operates as an anglophone institution. However, a federated college of the university, Glendon College, operates as a bilingual institution.[36]
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Part of the Université du Québec university system.
  7. ^ University of Regina operates as an anglophone institution. However, its institution La Cité is francophone.[36]
  8. ^ 2020 as University
  9. ^ Concordia University of Edmonton was formerly affiliated with Lutheran Church-Canada until 2016, when the university ended its affiliation and became a secular institution.
  10. ^ St. Stephen's University was established as a Christian institution, although later became seclarized.[46]


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  19. ^ "About: A Proud Tradition of Academic Excellence and Faith". Crandall University. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
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  21. ^ "About the School of Music". Memorial University. Archived from the original on 2008-10-25. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
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  27. ^ "Search". Ontario Colleges. Retrieved 2023-10-26.
  28. ^ Girard, Daniel (2007-09-20). "University of Toronto (Mississauga): Best of both worlds". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 2008-04-10. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
  29. ^ "CUDO - A6 :: Total Enrolment by Program". Retrieved 2020-01-24.
  30. ^ "Higher Education and Corporate Services". Government of Prince Edward Island. Archived from the original on 2008-10-11. Retrieved 2008-10-11.
  31. ^ "University of Prince Edward Island". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 2014-12-06. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
  32. ^ "Applications and Admissions". University of Prince Edward Island. Archived from the original on 2016-10-22. Retrieved 2016-10-22.
  33. ^ "Quality Assurance Practices for Postsecondary Institutions in Saskatchewan". Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials. 2008-01-25. Archived from the original on 2008-12-04. Retrieved 2008-10-11.
  34. ^ "Our History". First Nations University of Canada. Archived from the original on 2007-08-11. Retrieved 2008-10-24.
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